The Three Kings Cake

Tradition

Publié le 21 December 2015 Mis à jour le 7 May 2018

Cake, charms, tradition, the Three Wise Men; everything you need to know about Epiphany in Provence

The Three Kings Cake or Twelfth night cake, is a ring cake eaten on the 6th January – or the first Sunday in January, being more practical when the 6th falls in the week – to celebrate Epiphany or the arrival of the Three Kings to visit the new born baby Jesus. The ring cake is a brioche made with orange blossom, covered in sugar, decorated with candied fruit and found on every table in Provence throughout the month of January.

To prepare Epiphany in Provence, firstly you need a nativity scene with manger, decorated at the beginning of December with the crib figures Ravi, the angel Boufareu (named as such because of his puffy cheeks and as he plays the trumpet every time God is happy!), Mistral, with his cape flowing in the wind, Pagnol’s card game and of course, Mary and Joseph, the donkey and the ox. Christian or not, in Provence everyone prepares a nativity scene in their home. But, and this is important, the baby Jesus isn’t put in his crib before the evening of the 24th, along with the loveliest of all the santons, Melchior, Gaspar and Balthazar, the Three Kings who arrived at Bethlehem by following the star, must also patiently wait their turn. Hidden behind a vase, dodging ornaments and lamps whilst crossing the living room, they get progressively nearer to the nativity scene, arriving in front of the new born baby on the 6th January with their gifts of gold, frankincense and myrrh.
Originally, it was during a pagan festival, where wine flowed freely, that the Three Kings Cake was first eaten. The Romans also celebrated the days getting longer with the Saturnalia festival where a fig cake with a charm hidden inside was served, and the person who found it would be designated King of the Festival or the Garrison Chief.

Epiphany cake in Provence

Epiphany cake in Provence

If some are satisfied with just the first Sunday in January, here in Provence we love our cake so much that we eat it when we can! As soon as Christmas is over we queue outside the bakers and begin a debate on who makes the best brioche, we have to laugh at the poor Parisians with their flat and boring frangipane cake, because our cake is by far the best! Round, plump, perfumed with orange blossom, proudly topped with candied fruits symbolising the precious stones offered by the Three Kings. So it is only normal that we are tempted by this delight throughout January, or maybe even longer for some. Every occasion serves as a good excuse; at the office, amongst friends, as a family, with the children, the older generations, or even alone!
Once it is on the table it has to be eaten. Although, there are a few rules that must be respected! Traditionally, when being cut, a “slice for the poor” is always reserved, and the youngest in the gathering hides under the table to give out each slice. Therefore, it is impossible to take the largest slice or the slice containing the charm!
Without wanting to be biased, we southerners are not like that, we like to remain modest, and this brioche is the most traditional form of the Three Kings Cake. A little history: it was under Louis XIV in the XVIIth century that the frangipane cake was born, inspired from the Pithiviers cake, which was affectionately known as the “Parisian” for some time.

And there you have it! But, there is just one more fact you need to know about the charm. We, the Provencal people, are very generous! As we love tradition, we place a real dried broad bean – as this is what was traditionally used – as well as a porcelain figurine, the santon. The person who finds the bean is the King and wears the crown, and the person who finds the santon is the Queen.
And just to make this delightful cake eating ceremony last a little longer, the person who finds the charm buys the next cake! Clever thinking….

Provençal Epiphany brioche

«Les rois mages étaient trois. Il y avait César, et pis Marius, et pis Fanny.» Desproges

Crown for epiphany king

Other articles

Goat's Cheese

Goat's Cheese

Whether it's served hot with a salad, used to crown a cheese platter, or savoured fresh with honey or olive oil, goat's cheese is an absolute culinary must. Provence's dry, sunny climate is perfect for goat breeding -and that's lucky for us!

Candied Fruit

Candied Fruit

A gourmet treat…

Provence has been famed for its candied fruit from time immemorial. In the early 16th century, the region was fairly impoverished. Fruit grew here in abundance, but much of it was lost every year.

Tomatoes

Tomatoes

In a sauce or salad, red is the colour!

Not having qualifications doesn't mean your life is ruined

Almonds

Almonds

(Re)conquering Provence

Can anyone resist an almond? Everyone raves about these little nuggets of happiness you can savour every which way – fresh, dried, whole, grilled, sliced, ground or made into a cream or milk!

Squash

Squash

The Gourmet's New Eldorado

It had all but disappeared from the markets, but then – perhaps as a result of Halloween arriving in France – squash made a big comeback on our stalls just over a decade ago

Garlic

Garlic

It all starts with a crushed clove...

Provencal cuisine simply wouldn't exist without garlic

Figs

Figs

Francis lived happily close beside his tree...

Picked ripe from the tree, figs are simply to die for. They can also be scattered on trays and left to dry in the sun for 3 days: "That's the best way to keep your figs all winter – we serve figs at Christmas as one of Provence's famous 13 Desserts," smiles Jacqueline Honoré.

Quince

Quince

A story that will make you turn to jelly...

As yellow as sunshine and as warm as a winter fireplace... The quince isn't very pretty, but the people of Provence love it. You could even say that a passion has been born between this irregular-shaped fruit, somewhat resembling a dented, rustic pear and our lovers of jams, jellies and pastes.

The MEDITERRANEAN SEA

The MEDITERRANEAN SEA

Lifestyle

When we talk about the South of France, what's the first thing we think of? The MEDITERRANEAN SEA! (and the sun of course – it's all part of the package).

La Provence

La Provence

Provence is more than a simple destination, it's a whole way of life!

Calissons

Calissons

Aix-en-Provence prides in concocting 'Calisson' candies made with a thin candied melon paste and ground almonds topped with royal icing. Yummy

The Thirteen Desserts

The Thirteen Desserts

Celebrating Christmas in Provence with the Thirteen Desserts...